what is electricity
Electricity is a form of energy. Electricity is the flow of electrons. All matter is made up of atoms, and an atom has a center called a nucleus. The nucleus contains positively charged particles called protons and uncharged particles called neutrons. The nucleus of an atom is surrounded by negatively charged particles called electrons. The negative charge on an electron is equal to the positive charge on a proton, and the number of electrons in an atom is generally equal to the number of protons. When the equilibrium force between protons and electrons is disturbed by an external force, an atom can gain or lose an electron. When electrons are "lost" from an atom, the free movement of those electrons creates an electric current.
electricityit is a fundamental part of nature and one of our most used forms of energy. We generate electricity as a secondary energy carrier from the conversion of other energy carriers such as coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear energy and other natural sources, which are referred to as primary carriers. Many cities and towns were built next to waterfalls (a major source of mechanical energy) that turned water wheels to get work done. Before electricity generation began a little over 100 years ago, houses were lit with kerosene lamps, food was cooled in ice chests and rooms were heated with wood or coal stoves. Start withthe Benjamin FranklinExperimenting with a kite on a stormy night in Philadelphia, the principles of electricity were gradually understood. In the middle of the 19th century, the invention of electricity changed everyone's lifeelectric lamp. Before 1879, electricity was used in arc lamps for outdoor lighting. The invention of the lightbulb used electricity to bring indoor lighting into our homes.
How is a transformer used?
To solve the problem of long-distance power transmission,George Westinghousedeveloped a device called the transformer. The transformer enabled the efficient transmission of electricity over long distances. As a result, households and businesses far away from the power plant could be supplied with electricity.
Despite its huge importance in our daily lives, most of us rarely think about what life would be like without electricity. However, like air and water, we tend to take electricity for granted. Every day we use electricity to perform many functions for us - from lighting and heating/cooling our homes to powering televisions and computers. Electricity is a controllable and convenient form of energy used in heat, light, and power applications.
Today, the United States (US) electric power industry is created to ensure that adequate power is available at all times to meet all demand demands.
How is electricity generated?
An electrical generator is a device for converting mechanical energy intoelectricity. The procedure is based onRelationship between magnetism and electricity. When a wire or other electrically conductive material moves through a magnetic field, an electric current is created in the wire. The large generators used by electric utility companies have a stationary conductor. A magnet attached to the end of a rotating shaft is contained within a stationary conductive ring wrapped with a long, continuous piece of wire. As the magnet rotates, it induces a small electrical current in each section of wire as it passes. Each section of wire forms a separate small electrical conductor. All the small currents of individual sections add up to a considerable current. This electricity is used for electrical energy.
How are turbines used to generate electricity?
A power plant uses a turbine, motor, water wheel, or other similar machine to drive an electrical generator or device that converts mechanical or chemical energy into electricity. Steam turbines, internal combustion engines, gas turbines, water turbines and wind turbines are the most common methods of generating electricity.
Most of the electricity in the United States is produced insteam turbine. A turbine converts the kinetic energy of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) into mechanical energy. Steam turbines have a series of blades mounted on a shaft against which the steam is pressed, causing the shaft connected to the generator to rotate. In a fossil fuel steam turbine, fuel is burned in a furnace to heat water in a boiler to produce steam.
Coal, petroleum (petroleum), and natural gas are burned in large furnaces to heat water and produce steam, which in turn drives the blades of a turbine. Did you know that coal is the largest primary source of electricity used in the United States? In 1998, more than half (52%) of the county's 3.62 trillion kilowatt hours of electricity used coal as an energy source.
In addition to being combusted to heat water for steam, natural gas can also be combusted to produce hot flue gases that flow directly through a turbine, turning the turbine blades to produce electricity. Gas turbines are often used when power consumption is high. In 1998, 15% of the country's electricity was covered by natural gas.
Oil can also be used to create steam to turn a turbine. Residual fuel oil, a refined crude oil product, is often the petroleum product used in power plants that use petroleum to generate steam. Oil was used to generate less than three percent (3%) of all electricity generated by US power plants in 1998.
Nuclear poweris a method in which steam is generated by heating water through a process called nuclear fission. In a nuclear power plant, a reactor contains a core of nuclear fuel, usually enriched uranium. When atoms of uranium fuel are hit by neutrons, they fission (fission), releasing heat and more neutrons in the process. Under controlled conditions, these other neutrons can hit more uranium atoms, split more atoms, and so on. Therefore, continuous fission can take place, forming a chain reaction that releases heat. The heat is used to turn the water into steam, which in turn drives a turbine that produces electricity. In 2015, 19.47% of all electricity in the country is generated by nuclear power.
As of 2013, hydropower accounts for 6.8% of US electricity generation. It is a process that uses running water to drive a turbine connected to a generator. There are basically two basic types of hydroelectric power plants that generate electricity. In the first system, flowing water accumulates in reservoirs created through the use of dams. Water falls through a pipe called a penstock, putting pressure on the turbine blades to drive the generator to produce electricity. In the second system, called trickle flow, the force of the river current (instead of falling water) puts pressure on the turbine blades to produce electricity.
Other Generation Sources
Geothermal energy comes from thermal energy buried beneath the earth's surface. In some areas of the country, magma (molten matter beneath the earth's crust) flows close enough to the earth's surface to heat groundwater into steam that can be harnessed for use in steam turbine power plants. As of 2013, this energy source generates less than 1% of the country's electricity, despite a US Energy Information Administration that nine western states can potentially produce enough electricity to meet 20% of the country's energy needs.
Solar energy is derived from the energy of the sun. However, the sun's energy is not always available and is widely scattered. The methods of generating electricity from solar energy have historically been more expensive than using traditional fossil fuels. Photovoltaic conversion produces electrical energy directly from sunlight in a photovoltaic (solar) cell. Solar thermal electric generators use the sun's radiant energy to generate steam to drive turbines. In 2015, less than 1% of the country's electricity was covered by solar energy.
Wind energy is generated by converting the energy contained in the wind into electricity. Wind energy, like the sun in general, is an expensive source of electricity generation. In 2014, it was used for around 4.44% of the country's electricity. A wind turbine resembles a typical windmill.
Biomass (wood, municipal solid waste (garbage), and agricultural waste such as corn cobs and wheat straw are some other energy sources for power generation. These sources replace fossil fuels in the boiler. Combustion of wood and waste produces steam, which is typically used in conventional steam power plants. In 2015, biomass accounted for 1.57% of electricity generated in the United States.
The electricity produced by a generator is sent through cables to a transformer, which switches the electricity from low voltage to high voltage. With high voltage, electricity can be transported more efficiently over long distances. Transmission lines are used to carry electricity to a substation. Substations have transformers that convert high-voltage electricity to low-voltage electricity. From the substation, distribution lines carry electricity to homes, offices and factories that require low-voltage electricity.
How is electricity measured?
Electricity is measured in units of power called watts. It was named in honorJames Watt, that Erfinder againengine a steam. A watt is a very small amount of energy. That would require nearly 750 watts to equal one horsepower. A kilowatt equals 1,000 watts. A kilowatt hour (kWh) is equal to the energy of 1,000 watts working for one hour. The amount of electricity generated by a facility or consumed by a customer over a period of time is measured in kilowatt hours (kWh). Kilowatt hours are determined by multiplying the number of kW required by the number of operating hours. For example, if you use a 40-watt light bulb for 5 hours a day, you have consumed 200 watts of power, or 0.2 kilowatt-hours of electrical energy.
more aboutElectricity:History, electronics and famous inventors
What is electricity very short answer? ›
Electricity is the flow of electrical power or charge. It is a secondary energy source which means that we get it from the conversion of other sources of energy, like coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear power and other natural sources, which are called primary sources.Why do we need electricity very short answer? ›
Electricity is a form of energy and we need it for just about everything! Almost all of our modern conveniences are electrically powered. Electricity is what lights up our classrooms, heats our homes and lets us listen to our favourite music.What is electricity answer for kids? ›
Electricity is a form of energy that can give things the ability to move and work. Everything in the world around us is made of particles called protons, neutrons and electrons. These three tiny particles are found in everything around us. When the electrons move, they create electricity.What is electricity in one word? ›
Electricity is the presence and flow of electric current. Using electricity, we can transfer energy in ways that allow us to do simple chores. Its best-known form is the flow of electrons through conductors such as copper wires. The word "electricity" is sometimes used to mean "electrical energy".What is electricity for kids easy? ›
Electricity is an energy. This energy can be used to power electrical items such as toasters, kettles, cookers, televisions and computer tablets. Electrical energy is caused by electrons (the particles in atoms) moving about to make a current.What is life without electricity? ›
There would be no power to use your fridge or freezer, telephone lines would be down and phone signal lost. Your mobile phones will be useless as the battery dwindles, with no back up charging option. Your gas central heating won't work and your water supply would soon stop pumping clean water.Can we live without electricity Why? ›
There are important functions in our society that cannot function without electricity. One example is grocery stores. The most acute problems for stores of any size facing power cuts is related to cooling and heating of food products, and payment activities which are increasingly electronic.Why is electricity the most important energy? ›
Electrical energy is one of the most commonly used forms of energy in the world. It can be easily converted into any other energy form and can be safely and efficiently transported over long distances. As a result, it is used in our daily lives more than any other energy source.What is electricity for 5th grade? ›
Electricity is a form of energy that can gives things the ability to move and work. It is the flow of tiny particles called electrons. Thus, electricity is the form of energy that we get when electrons flow from one place to another.How do you explain electricity to a 5 year old? ›
To help a child understand the properties of static electricity, rub a balloon on your hair or a wool blanket or sweater, and watch how it sticks to the wall for a few moments. Explain that this is an example of negatively and positively charged atoms reacting to each other.
What is a quote about electricity? ›
Electricity can transform people's lives, not just economically but also socially. If it weren't for electricity, we'd all be watching television by candlelight. The kingdom of heaven is like electricity.What is a good word for electricity? ›
1. Don't leave the lights on it wastes electricity. 2. Electricity companies pay a premium for renewable energy.What is electricity facts for kids? ›
Electricity is a type of energy that comes from the flow of electrical power, also known as a charge. Electricity is used to power our homes, lights and electronics. We get electricity from sources like coal, energy, natural gas and oil.How did people live before electricity? ›
Living Without Electricity
Water was pumped from a well and had to be hauled, bucket by bucket, to the house or barn. Cows were milked by hand. The “toilet” was an outhouse in the yard. The heart of the home was the kitchen table with a kerosene lamp in the center.
Even people without modern technology don't sleep the night away, new research says. Members of three hunter-gatherer societies who lack electricity—and thus evenings filled with Facebook, Candy Crush, and 200 TV channels—get an average of only 6.4 hours of shut-eye a night, scientists have found.How do you survive without power? ›
- Prepare for Power Surges. As utility companies work to restore power, the whole grid becomes unstable. ...
- Bring Solar Lights Inside. ...
- Beware of Carbon Monoxide. ...
- Keep the Freezer Closed. ...
- Fill the Bathtub. ...
- Release the Garage Door. ...
- Heat the House With Your Water Heater. ...
- Charge With Your Car.
A power outage may: Disrupt communications, water and transportation. Close retail businesses, grocery stores, gas stations, ATMs, banks and other services. Cause food spoilage and water contamination.Will electricity ever run out? ›
We will never run out of electricity but we may run out of the fossil fuels used to produce it for domestic and industrial applications. Wind, solar and other types of renewable electricity will have to be relied on more than at present. As for electricity itself, the universe is filled with it.How many people live without electricity? ›
According to the latest IEA data, the number of people around the world who live without electricity is set to rise by nearly 20 million in 2022, reaching nearly 775 million, the first global increase since the IEA began tracking the numbers 20 years ago.
How does electricity make our life easier? ›
It is used for lighting rooms, working fans and domestic appliances like using electric stoves, A/C and more. All these provide comfort to people. In factories, large machines are worked with the help of electricity. Essential items like food, cloth, paper and many other things are the product of electricity.Why is energy so important in life? ›
Energy fuels and regulates the body's natural internal functions. It repairs cells and body tissue, is used to build muscle, and is necessary to maintain homeostasis — and the harsher the environment, the more energy is needed to maintain this.How electricity has changed our lives? ›
Thanks to electric light, people's lives were no longer governed by daylight; instead, they could determine their own daily rhythm. Electricity also made the world safer. Stoves and lighting could now be powered by electricity instead of fire, reducing the risk of fire spreading.How do you explain electricity to a 4 year old? ›
To help a child understand the properties of static electricity, rub a balloon on your hair or a wool blanket or sweater, and watch how it sticks to the wall for a few moments. Explain that this is an example of negatively and positively charged atoms reacting to each other.What is electricity for grade 1? ›
Electricity is a type of energy that gives items the power to work. It flows along wires and can even flow through the air. We all use electricity every day, whether it is turning on the lights in our house, playing our favourite video game, or blow drying our hair.What is basic understanding of electricity? ›
Electricity is the term we use to describe the energy of charged particles. Electricity might be stored, like in a battery. When you connect a battery to a light bulb, electricity flows. This happens because electrical charges (electrons) are free to carry energy from the battery through the bulb.What is electricity 6th grade? ›
Electricity is a flow of charge from one end of the current source to the other terminal end. The objects that allow the conduction of the flow of current through the circuit are known as conductors.What are the 10 uses of electricity? ›
- Transport and Communication.